Tubay is located in the northern portion of the Province of Agusan del Norte. It lies 90 9’ 37” north latitude and 1250 31’ to 1280 37’ east longitude. Its boundaries are Jabonga and Santiago to the north; Butuan Bay to the west, Cabadbaran to the south; Santigao to the east. It is approximately 86 kilometers and 39.1 kilometers from Surigao City and Butuan City, and 232 kilometers from Cagayan de Oro City. It is situated in the heart of the CARAGA Region.
Tubay has 2 Urban barangays and 11 Rural barangays, namely: Poblacion 1 and 2, Binuwangan, Cabayawa, Doña Rosario, La Fraternidad, Lawigan, Sta Ana, Tagpangahoy, Tagmamarkay, Tinigbasan, Vicotry and Doña Telesfora.
The municipality is made up of flat and rolling lands. Mountain ranges rise on both the eastern and western boundaries forming valleys fed by the waters of four rivers and tributaries. The eastern mountains are part of the Diwata mountain range that forms a natural boundary between Agusan del Norte and Surigao del Sur. The second highest peak in Agusan del Norte, Mt. Mabaho, is overlooking Tubay with an elevation of 1,823 meters above sea level. The low-lying hills on the western bay provide a natural barrier of Lake Mainit forcing its water to flow through the entire length of Tubay feeding its agricultural lands as it flows down to Butuan Bay.
Tubay’s climate, like the other northern municipalities in the Province of Agusan del Norte, has no pronounced dry season. Average temperature of 31.6 degrees while relative humidity has an average of 86.4%. Average rainfall is very low at 6.2 mm with November and February recording the highest of 25.4 mm and 12.6 mm respectively. The prevailing wind direction is east northeast.